Why did England send the convicts to Australia?

Why did England send the convicts to Australia?

Between 1788 and 1868 more than 162,000 convicts were transported to Australia. The convicts were transported as punishment for crimes committed in Britain and Ireland. In Australia their lives were hard as they helped build the young colony.

Why did cook come to Australia?

In 1768 Cook was chosen to lead an expedition to the South Seas to observe the Transit of Venus and to secretly search for the unknown Great Southern Continent (terra australis incognita). He recommended the island for the Transit of Venus observations and Cook arrived here in April 1769.

Why did the First Fleet come to Australia?

Before 1787 convicts from England had been sent to British colonies in North America. The First Fleet was the first group of ships to carry convicts to the British colony in Australia. Captain Arthur Phillip was in charge and his job was to establish a convict settlement in Australia.

What was the purpose of Captain Cook’s voyage to Australia?

It was the first of three Pacific voyages of which James Cook was the commander. The aims of this first expedition were to observe the 1769 transit of Venus across the Sun (3–4 June that year), and to seek evidence of the postulated Terra Australis Incognita or “undiscovered southern land”.

What did female convicts do in Australia?

Convict women were employed in domestic service, washing and on government farms, and were expected to find their own food and lodging. Punishment for those who transgressed was humiliating and public.

What was the most common crime committed by convicts sent to Australia?

1. Petty theft. By far the most common crime that led to transportation was petty theft or larceny.

Why did Captain James Cook explore?

First Expedition Cook set off for his first journey on August 26, 1768. His main objective was to observe the planet Venus as it passed between the Earth and the Sun. This would help astronomers to calculate the distance of the Sun from the Earth. He also hoped to find the fabled southern continent.

How many babies were born on the first fleet?

It is estimated there were about 50 children on the First Fleet when it arrived at Botany Bay. Over 20 children were born at sea during the eight-month voyage.

How old was the youngest convict on the First Fleet?

13 years old
John Hudson, described as ‘sometimes a chimney sweeper’, was the youngest known convict to sail with the First Fleet. Voyaging on board the Friendship to NSW, the boy thief was 13 years old on arrival at Sydney Cove. He was only nine when first sentenced.

How old was the youngest convict sent to Australia?

Why were female convicts given less rations?

Female convicts and marine wives received 2/3 of male convict ration. In order that they could tend their own gardens, convicts did not have to work on Saturday afternoons. This means a reduction of 12lb for every 100lb of beef and 8lb for every 100lb of pork.

When did Captain Cook first come to Australia?

Britain’s first contact with Australia came with Captain Cook’s voyage in the ship Endeavour. He landed in Australia in 1770 and claimed it as a British territory. A fleet of 11 ships, containing 736 convicts, some British troops and a governor set up the first colony of New South Wales.

Where did Captain Cook go on his voyage?

Captain Cook Voyages to Australia. The ship, ‘Captain Cook’ was built at Whitby, England in 1826. Transported convicts to New South Wales in 1832, 1833 and 1836.

Where was the Captain Cook convict ship built?

The ship, ‘Captain Cook’ was built at Whitby, England in 1826. Transported convicts to New South Wales in 1832, 1833 and 1836.

When did James Cook claim the eastern part of Australia?

Lieutenant James Cook, captain of HMB Endeavour, claimed the eastern portion of the Australian continent for the British Crown in 1770, naming it New South Wales.

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