Table of Contents
- 1 What does Balantidiasis mean?
- 2 Is there a vaccine for Balantidiasis?
- 3 Is Balantidiasis zoonotic disease?
- 4 What causes balantidiasis?
- 5 Is Balantidiasis occupational disease?
- 6 How is Balantidiasis transmitted?
- 7 How does balantidiasis occur in the human body?
- 8 How is balantidiasis transmitted from pig to human?
What does Balantidiasis mean?
Definition. Balantidiasis is an infectious disease , rare in western countries. It is caused by Balantidium coli, a single celled parasite (ciliate protozoan) that is usually associated with intestinal infection in areas associated with pig rearing. It infects humans occasionally, mostly immunocompromised patients.
What are the signs and symptoms of Balantidiasis?
Common symptoms of Balantidiasis include chronic diarrhea, occasional dysentery (diarrhea with passage of blood or mucus), nausea, foul breath, colitis (inflammation of the colon), abdominal pain, weight loss, deep intestinal ulcerations, and possibly perforation of the intestine.
Is there a vaccine for Balantidiasis?
There is currently no vaccine to prevent infection, and reinfection may occur in individuals had previously been infected.
How long does Balantidiasis last?
Mature cysts are passed in the stool and can remain viable for up to two weeks in the environment . Cysts are considered the main infective stage; trophozoites can also be passed in stool but generally disappear soon after passage .
Is Balantidiasis zoonotic disease?
Balantidiasis is a zoonotic disease transmitted from pigs to humans and nonhuman primates via the fecal-oral route. Humans acquire this infection through water and food contaminated with pig or human feces.
How are patients with Balantidiasis diagnosed?
Balantidiasis is diagnosed by microscopic examination of a patient’s feces. A stool sample is collected and a wet mount is prepared. Cysts or trophozoites can be detected in the feces.
What causes balantidiasis?
Balantidium coli is an intestinal protozoan parasite that causes the infection called balantidiasis. While this type of infection is uncommon in the United States, humans and other mammals can become infected with Balantidium coli by ingesting infective cysts from food and water that is contaminated by feces.
How do you treat balantidiasis?
Three medications are used most often to treat Balantidium coli: tetracycline, metronidazole, and iodoquinol. Tetracycline*: adults, 500 mg orally four times daily for 10 days; children ≥ 8 years old, 40 mg/kg/day (max. 2 grams) orally in four doses for 10 days.
Is Balantidiasis occupational disease?
Epidemiology: Worldwide; highest prevalence rates in tropical and subtropical regions. Occupational disease oflivestock producers, veterinarians, and abattoir workers. Spo- radic cases or outbreaks from consumption of water or food contaminated with trophozoites or cysts.
How common is Balantidiasis?
Balantidium coli infection in humans is rare in the United States. Balantidium coli is found throughout the world, but it is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions and developing countries.
How is Balantidiasis transmitted?
Balantidium coli is transmitted through the fecal-oral route. Humans can become infected by eating and drinking contaminated food and water that has come into contact with infective animal or human fecal matter.
Who has a higher risk of getting balantidiasis?
Risk factors for balantidiasis include contact with pigs, handling fertilizer contaminated with pig excrement, and living in areas where the water supply may be contaminated by the excrement of infected animals. Poor nutrition, achlorhydria, alcoholism, and immunosuppression may also be contributing factors.
How does balantidiasis occur in the human body?
What is Balantidium coli? Balantidium coli is an intestinal protozoan parasite that causes the infection called balantidiasis. While this type of infection is uncommon in the United States, humans and other mammals can become infected with Balantidium coli by ingesting infective cysts from food and water that is contaminated by feces.
Where is Balantidium coli found in the world?
Balantidium coli is found throughout the world, but it is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions and developing countries. Because pigs are an animal reservoir, human infections occur more frequently in areas where pigs are raised, especially if good hygiene is not practiced.
How is balantidiasis transmitted from pig to human?
Balantidiasis is a rare infectious disease caused by the single celled (protozoan) parasite Balantidium coli. This parasite may be passed directly to humans by contact with pig feces or indirectly by drinking contaminated water.
Can a person with balantidiasis have diarrhea?
Most persons with balantidiasis do not exhibit any noticeable symptoms (asymptomatic), but a few individuals will develop diarrhea with blood and mucus and an inflamed colon (colitis). Balantidiasis is caused by Balantidium coli, a parasitic protozoan that infects the large intestine.